Stories We’re About Coral Reefs and Forests
Most of us probably have seen coral reefs , excellent snorkeling ( diving in the ocean ) or just look at the picture only on television . For those of us who are unfamiliar , whether we fully understand what is meant by coral reefs ? Is there a difference between the reefs and coral ? Is coral living things ? That series of questions that must be answered when talking about coral reefs .
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Dr. . Neviaty Zamani and Maritime Affairs of the Ministry of Science , Faculty of Fisheries , Bogor Agricultural University , reveal a basic knowledge of coral reefs in the Coral Reef Conference on Marine Ecosystem Balance in Auditorium Sumardi Sastrakusumah Indonesia , IPB , Saturday ( 29/9 ) .
Nevy explained that coral reefs and is different . Coral inanimate objects , while coral living things . Reef , further Nevy , is dead particles metabolism of coral animals . Particles die is then hardened for tens , hundreds , even millions of years to form the hard rock that serves as a ’ concrete ’ coastal protection . The existence of coral reefs are physically very important for coastal protection from abrasion and can reduce the impact of the tsunami disaster .
Animal shaped coral folip category . If during this time many consider coral reefs are plants , not entirely wrong because the characteristics are very attached to the physical plant . For example , creeping , creeping , on - cuttings , plant- specific , even healthy coral reef ecosystem looks like a park or garden . Association of marine ornamental fish fishermen , also still use the term to refer to ornamental plants reef .
Corals are simple animals with main meals and rely on plankton metabolic processes through a single hole . This hole serves as the entrance to the exit at the same meal. In his life , the coral animal symbiosis with algae Zooxanthela mutualiasme . Symbiosis is what produces calcium carbonate as an embryo bakalnya hard corals . The algae also causes colorful coral reefs . Hollow body shape makes these animals categorized as Coelenterata . However , it can also be categorized in Cnidaria because it has a stinger .
According Nevy , although simple , has a number of guidelines to coral animal breed either through cuttings , divide , or sprout . The coral animals would also breed in generative because it has its own sex . ” In one individual can have one jantau or female genitalia . In fact , two other individuals could have sex at the same time “said Nevy .
Although most of the earth is water , but not all places have coral reefs . Distribution of coral reefs in the world’s most widely path alias tropical equator . If we focus again , the center of the distribution of coral reefs in the waters of the Philippines and Indonesia .
According Beginer Subhan , a lecturer at the Department of Marine Sciences and Technology , Faculty of Fisheries , IPB , the widest distribution of coral reefs in the waters of Indonesia Wallacea , especially Sulawesi and surrounding islands . ” Sulawesi is among the most unique with a broad distribution of coral reefs ” he said .
Indonesia has a diversity of coral reef about 590 kinds of 82 genera . Unfortunately, this wealth facing heavy pressure . Natural phenomena believed to be the cause of damage to coral reefs such as hurricanes , earthquakes , and tsunamis . However , the most severe pressure comes from human activities such as coral mining , blast fishing or toxins , overfishing , destructive tourism , garbage , pollution and water pollution from sewage and marine oil spills , coastal reclamation , soil and sediment from the mainland . Increased sea surface temperatures due to global warming has also made a ” sea of tropical jungle ” to face threats known as bleaching or bleaching .
Idris , coral reef conservation practitioners from Illuminate Foundation , explains the efforts made by the agency in the conservation of coral reefs in the Thousand Islands , Jakarta . According to him , the management of coral reefs should be done with a comprehensive approach . That is , the parties involved , either directly interact with water and the parties on the mainland . ” Upstream - downstream approach is absolutely necessary ” said Idris .
The pilot project by carrying Integrated Coastal Management has been conducted in the Bay of Jakarta . The biggest challenge , says Idris , vision and commitment is to bring together the various sectors of development in coral reef conservation efforts .
In Jakarta Bay , there are more than ten rivers that flow into and carry materials harmful to coral reef ecosystems such as litter , soil sedimentation , and agricultural fertilizers . Jakarta reclamation and destruction of mangrove forests are increasingly tapping the massive coral reef ecosystems and increasing sedimentation . Sedimentation can meghambat Zooxanthela algae photosynthesis process , which means it will stop the process mutualiasme symbiotic coral reefs . In other words , the destruction of forests in the upper reaches , contributing to the rising threat of the sustainability of coral reef ecosystems .
Indonesia , especially the Wallacea region , is its diversity of coral species once endemic bird species . Necessary to ecosystem -based management of the island , where the upstream - downstream will be seen as an integral whole ecosystem and affect each other . This approach is increasingly important , especially the thousands of small islands scattered between Maluku , Nusa Tenggara , and Sulawesi .
The loss of forest on land not only decrease the diversity of bird species but also potentially threaten coral reef ecosystems . It would be wise if the indicators of success of forest conservation is not only measured by the increase in forest cover and wildlife but also how its contribution to downstream . Especially , in the coral reef ecosystem . Development indicators , mechanisms , and how the method needs to be done .
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Millions of fishermen are directly dependent on coral reef ecosystems , where 2,400 species of fish live in the vicinity. Economically , coral reef fisheries are able to produce about 15 million U.S. dollars each year for Indonesia . Well you know ! ( M. Muslich )
source:http:// burung .org/